CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2023-24


The Central Board of Secondary Education has announced the CBSE class 12 Economics syllabus 2022-23. Economics is an important subject for the Commerce stream students which deals with many abstract and ideal blueprints to study the action and foretell how institutions will adapt to given changes in fiscal policies and market conditions, among other factors. Class 12 economics syllabus 2022-23 is provided so that students can prepare well without wasting time on topics not part of the syllabus. 

The students preparing for the upcoming Economics Board Exam must prepare only from the CBSE class 12 Economics syllabus 2022-23, as it provides students with an insight into which chapters are included for the exams and which topics are excluded for this academic year 2022-23. The syllabus can also download other commerce subject syllabus such as the class 12 accountancy syllabus and the class 12th business studies syllabus.

CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus

Students preparing for preparation of the upcoming Economics exam must have knowledge of the CBSE class 12 Economics syllabus. Students must know what chapters they have to study and what all topics or units are from the CBSE class 12th economics syllabus for this academic year 2022-23. Economics class 12 syllabus 2022-23 is provided below, updated syllabus of economics class 12 CBSE 2022-23.

Class 12 Economics curriculum is divided into theory exams of 80 marks and practical of 20 marks each.

Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics

Unit 1: National Income and Related Aggregates

What is Macroeconomics? Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
Circular flow of income (two sector model); Methods of calculating National Income – Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
Aggregates related to National Income:
Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Net Domestic Product (NDP) – at market price, at factor cost; Real and Nominal GDP.
GDP and Welfare

Unit 2: Money and Banking

Money – meaning and functions, supply of money – Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
Money creation by the commercial banking system.
Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker’s Bank, Control of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement

Unit 3: Determination of Income and Employment

Aggregate demand and its components.
Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism.
Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them – changes in government spending, taxes and money supply

Unit 4: Government Budget and the Economy

Government budget – meaning, objectives and components.
Classification of receipts – revenue receipts and capital receipts;
Classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
Balanced, Surplus and Deficit Budget – measures of government deficit.

Unit 5: Balance of Payments

Balance of payments account – meaning and components;
Balance of payments – Surplus and Deficit
Foreign exchange rate – meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.
Determination of exchange rate in a free market, Merits and demerits of flexible and fixed exchange rate.
Managed Floating exchange rate system

Part B: Indian Economic Development

Unit 6: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991

A brief introduction of the state of the Indian economy on the eve of independence.
Indian economic system and common goals of Five Year Plans.
Main features, problems, and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance), and foreign trade.
Economic Reforms since 1991:
Features and appraisals of liberalization, globalization, and privatization (LPG policy); Concepts of demonetization and GST

Unit 7: Current challenges facing the Indian Economy

Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India
Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming – organic farming
Employment: Growth and changes in work force participation rate in formal and informal sectors; problems and policies
Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming

Unit 8: Development Experience of India

A comparison with neighbors
India and Pakistan
India and China
Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development, and other Human
Development Indicators

Part C: Project in Economics 

Prescribed Books:
  • Statistics for Economics, NCERT
  • Indian Economic Development, NCERT
  • Introductory Microeconomics, NCERT
  • Macroeconomics, NCERT
  • Supplementary Reading Material in Economics, CBSE
Note: The above publications are also available in Hindi Medium.

CBSE Class 12 Economics Marking Scheme 2022-23

The economics theory paper consists of a total of 80 marks. It is divided into two parts of 40 marks each and 20 marks are allotted for class 12 economic project work. To score good marks in the upcoming Economics exam 2022-23, students must know the weightage of each unit and prepare accordingly. Given below is the CBSE class 12 economics unit-wise weightage as per the CBSE class 12 Eco syllabus. You can also find the CBSE class 12 syllabus and marks distribution for other subjects as well.

Part A Introductory Macroeconomics  
 National Income and Related Aggregates1030
 Money and Banking615
 Determination of Income and Employment1230
 Government Budget and the Economy617
 Balance of Payments618
Part BIndian Economic Development  
 Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 19911228
 Current Challenges facing Indian Economy2050
 Development Experience of India – A Comparison with Neighbors0812
 Theory Paper (40+40 = 80 Marks)40
Part CProject Work2020

How to Download CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2022-23

Class 12 students can also download the CBSE class 12 Economics syllabus from the official website as well as from this article. The steps to download the syllabus are given below.

  • Steps to download from Official Website

Step 1 – Visit the official website

Step 2 – On the top of the home page, you will see the option of ‘curriculum’. Click on the tab, it will redirect you to the syllabus page.

Step 3 – Now click on the option ‘Senior Secondary Curriculum (XI-XII)’

Step 4 – Select the ‘ Academic Electives – (Group-A)’ option. The list of subjects will now open on the screens.

Step 5 – Click on the subject names to download the syllabus for the respective subject.

Step 6 – Click on the download button and save the syllabus in pdf format.

  • Steps to Download the Syllabus from this article

Step 1- Open the PDF link.

Step 2- On the top right side, you will find an “arrow button”.

Step 3- By clicking the arrow button, your CBSE class 12 Economics syllabus will be downloaded on your device. 

Note: To avoid confusion and complexity, download the CBSE class 12 Economics syllabus 2022-23 from Vidya Setu by following 2 very easy steps. 

CBSE Class 12 Economics Exam 2022-23: Exam Paper Pattern 

S.No. Typology of Questions Marks Percentage 
1. Remembering and Understanding: Exhibit memory of previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts, and answers. Demonstrate understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas 4455%
2.Applying: Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques, and rules in a different way. 1822.5%
3.Analyzing, Evaluating, and Creating: Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations. Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, the validity of ideas, or quality of work based on a set of criteria. Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions. 1822.5%
 Total 80100%

CBSE Class 12 Economics Grading Scheme

As per the CBSE curriculum, the grades and marks of the class 12 exam are awarded to students on the basis of a 9-point grading system. Check out the Assessment scheme of CBSE class 12 upcoming Economics exam 2022-23 given below. 

CBSE Class 12 Economics Grading Scheme 
A-1Top 1/8th of the passed candidates
A-2Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
B-1Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
B-2Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
C-1Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
C-2Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
D-1Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
D-2Next 1/8th of the passed candidates
EFailed Candidates

CBSE Class 12 Economics Sample Paper

After the completion of, CBSE 12 economics syllabus students need proper revision before appearing for the exam. Therefore, students must solve the CBSE class 12 Economics sample papers to assess their preparations for the upcoming exam. Given below are the last 3 years of CBSE class 12 Sample Papers with a solution. You can also find other commerce subjects sample papers at class 12 commerce sample paper.

Class 12 economics important questions are advised to solve multiple times while preparing for the class 12 economics board exam. students can list down all the important questions from class 12 economics previous years question papers and sample papers.

CBSE class 12 Economics sample paper 2021-22Sample Question PaperAnswer
CBSE class 12 Economics sample paper 2019-20Sample Question PaperAnswer
CBSE class 12 Economics sample paper 2018-19Sample Question PaperAnswer

CBSE Class 12 Economics- Recommended Books

The prescribed book for Economics is the NCERT Economics book. NCERT Class 12 Economics books  and class 12 Economcis notes have detailed explanations of each and every topic in a very easy language. By studying for the NCERT books students can clear the Economics exam with good marks. Vidya Setu learning provides the NCERT class 12 economics syllabus and NCERT books for free. 

  1. CBSE Class 12 Economics Part A (Introductory Macroeconomics)
  2. CBSE Class 12 Economics Part B (Indian Economic Development)

CBSE Class 12 Economics Exam 2022-23: Preparation Tips

To get the best result in the upcoming CBSE class 12 Economics exam, students must follow the given tips below:

  • First of all, students must prepare a strict study plan. 
  • Students must then have all the study material such as NCERT book, sample papers, Economics syllabus, etc. 
  • Before starting the preparation, 12 CBSE economics syllabus pdf. Students must have a knowledge of what topics are included for this academic year 2022-23. CBSE economics syllabus for class 12 will help you understand the paper pattern and marks distribution. 
  • As per the weightage of each unit students must devote their time to the particular topic. 
  • Try to learn all the important terminologies related to the subject.
  • Revision is very critical for every student. So, to have a proper revision try to solve the Economics sample papers.


For better and advanced learning, students must Enroll Now with Vidya Setu. Vidya Setu is renowned for outstanding results every year. Visit this page for all the latest and updated information regarding Class 11 and class 12.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. How many chapters are there in the CBSE Class 12 Syllabus?

Ans: There are 6 chapters in Macroeconomics and 6 chapters in Microeconomics. 

Q2. Is the CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus changed for this academic year 2022-23?

Ans: No, in the CBSE class 12 Economics syllabus 2022-23 there is no change

Q3. Is the NCERT book enough for the upcoming CBSE Class 12 Economics exam?

Ans: Yes, NCERT book enough for the upcoming CBSE Class 12 Economics exam. The topics and chapters are explained very appropriately in a detailed way and in easily understandable language.