CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus & Paper Pattern 2023-24


In this article, you will get all information related to your CBSE class 12 biology syllabus, its exam pattern, and even download your CBSE class 12 biology sample paper. Students who are appearing for the exam can download latest and updated CBSE 12 biology syllabus information for your help.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2022-23:

As Biology is an important subject for the science stream, you should have in-depth knowledge of every topic from the syllabus as it will help every science stream students who want to pursue a medical-related field. If a student has a clear understanding of the subjects’ syllabus, they can score good marks in their exams to get the best medical college.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus: Theory

Students should have their full syllabus as they know which topic has been deleted and which are the topics they have to study for their exams. For doing this, students should download a hard copy of the full syllabus and mark deleted topics in red to be clear about it

Unit-I Reproduction
Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering PlantsFlower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination – types, agencies and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
Chapter-3: Human ReproductionMale and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis -spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).
Chapter-4: Reproductive HealthNeed for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control – need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).
Unit-II Genetics and Evolution
Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and VariationHeredity and variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans – thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of InheritanceSearch for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation – lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.
Chapter-7: EvolutionOrigin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin’s contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy – Weinberg’s principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.
Unit-III Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter-8: Human Health and DiseasesPathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter-10: Microbes in Human WelfareMicrobes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation andmicrobes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Unit-IV Biotechnology and its Applications
Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and ProcessesGenetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its ApplicationsApplication of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.
Unit-V Ecology and Environment
Chapter-13: Organisms and PopulationsPopulation interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Aboitic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations)
Chapter-14: EcosystemEcosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles)
Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its ConservationBiodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

Download PDF CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus

CBSE Class 12 Biology Theory Weightage 2022-23

In the below-given table, you will get all the biology theory weightage:

VIIGenetics and Evolution20
VIIIBiology and Human Welfare12
IXBiotechnology and its Applications12
XEcology and Environment10

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus: Practical

In the below-given table, you will get all the topic form the practical biology syllabus:-

A. List of Experiments
  • Prepare a temporary mount to observe pollen germination.
  • Study the plant population density by quadrat method.
  • Study the plant population frequency by quadrat method.
  • Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.
  • Isolate DNA from available plant material such as spinach, green pea seeds, papaya, etc.
B. Study and observer the following (Spotting):
  • Flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insects, birds).
  • Pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide or scanning electron micrograph.
  • Identification of stages of gamete development, i.e., T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slides (from grasshopper/mice).
  • Meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slides.
  • T.S. of blastula through permanent slides (Mammalian).
  • Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/sizes of any plant.
  • Prepared pedigree charts of any one of the genetic traits such as rolling of tongue, blood groups, ear lobes, widow’s peak and colour blindness.
  • Controlled pollination – emasculation, tagging andbagging.
  • Common disease causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, any fungus causing ringworm through permanent slides, models or virtual images or specimens. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.
  • Models specimen showing symbolic association in root modules of leguminous plants, Cuscuta on host, lichens.
  • Flash cards models showing examples of homologous and analogous organs.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Practical Weightage 2022-23

In the below-given table, you will get all the biology practical weightage:-

Evaluation SchemeMarks
One Major Experiment 55
One Minor Experiment 2 & 34
Slide Preparation 1 & 45
Practical Record + Viva Voce4
Project Record + Viva Voce5

Note:- For (Practical Record + Viva Voce)+(Project Record + Viva Voce) Credit to the students’ work over the academic session may be given

Practical Examination for Visually Impaired Students of Classes XII Evaluation Scheme

Identification/Familiarity with the apparatus5
Written test (Based on given/prescribed practicals)10
Practical Records5

How to download CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus 2022-23

Below mention as some steps on how to download CBSE Class 12th Biology Syllabus follow the process and get your biology syllabus:-

  • Step1: Visit CBSE official website
  • Step2: On the homepage on the section “Curriculum” and click on it.
  • Step3 Click on the Curriculum 2022-23
  • Step4: Then click on the senior secondary Curriculum 2022-23
  • Step5: Select Academic Electives – (Group-A).
  • Step6: Now click on the Biology tab, and you will get the biology syllabus and download the PDF.

CBSE Class 12 Biology Question Paper Pattern

Students should know how the CBSE will set the question paper pattern just to be clearer about how many questions will come, and the marks for that particular are of questions will be there in exams. As there is the only paper pattern for theory papers, not for practical papers. Vidya setu also provides other resources like NCERT class 12 biology solutions and books.

Types of questionNo. of QuestionMarksTotal
Very Short Answer515
Short Answer- 1 (SA1)7214
Short Answer- 2 (SA2)12336
Long Answer3515

Preparation Tips For Your Biology Exams

  1. Students should check the paper pattern/ blueprint and understand them because it will help you save you crucial time in exams. CBSE releases paper patterns every year.
  2. Complete the Basics things first, they are fast to understand and learn and stick to the syllabus provided by CBSE, and as there, there is a change in the syllabus so that it will help you in the study.
  3. In Biology, the most important things are diagrams and terminologies, so when you are studying, be more focused on them, they help you in exams to explain the whole answer.
  4. After you are done with studying and doing revision, once you solve the previous year’s papers and sample paper, you will know where you stand and on which topic you have to focus more on.
  5. While you are studying, make notes, important pointers, and when you are going to revise the chapters it will be easy for you just to go through those important pointers.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. Is the NCERT book enough to prepare for the exam?

Yes, NCERT Books are more than enough to prepare for exams.

Q2. Passing Marks for CBSE class 12th exam?

Passing for CBSE class 12th exam for each subject is a minimum of 33%